The cardiovascular system and its functions
According to Organismal Biology, the early stages of animal development begin with the fusion of a sperm cell with a single egg cell and produce an active egg cell called an embryo. The embryo then undergoes development in the morula, blastula, and gastrula phases.
In this phase the fertilized egg cell is still a zygote with a single cell, will actively divide rapidly. Cells divide mitotically and produce the first embryonic tissue cells, the blastomeres. The blastomeric cells unite to form a ball like an apple and are named morula.
In the embryogenesis process of most animal phyla, the gastrula stage is characterized by the formation of a germ layer or germinal layer. Some animals form two germ layers (only endoderm and ectoderm) like jellyfish.
However, there are three animals that form three triploblast germ layers (i.e. endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm) such as in mammals and most animal phyla. The germ layer is the main layer for forming the organs of the animal body.
Materi sistem kardiovaskuler
Bendo AA. Penatalaksanaan perioperatif pasien dewasa dengan cedera kepala berat. Dalam: Cottrell JE, Young WL, eds. Cottrell and Young’s neuroanesthesia, 5th ed. (Terjemahan). Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier; 2011, 317-25.
Morales MI, Pittman J, Cottrell JE. Perlindungan dan resusitasi otak. Dalam: Newfield P, Cottrell JE, eds. Buku Pegangan Neuroanesthesia, ed ke-4. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkin;2007, 55-72.
Pemberton PL, Dinsmore J. Penggunaan hipotermia sebagai metode perlindungan saraf selama prosedur bedah saraf dan setelah cedera otak traumatis: Sebuah survei praktik klinis di Inggris Raya dan Irlandia. Anesthesia 2003;58:37-73.
Cardiovascular system paper
2. FACTORS INFLUENCING CHANGES IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM OF THE ELDERLY2.1. Atherosclerosis, physical ineffectiveness, smoking, dietary habits, obesity, hypertension, lipid disorders, metabolic syndrome, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic factorsgenetic factors
5. ASSESSMENT5.1. Basic assessment of cardiovascular function5.2. Assessment of blood pressure5.3. Identification of risk in cardiovascular disease5.4. Assessment of signs and symptoms of heart disease5.5. Assessment of client’s knowledge of heart disease
10. Member of Group 1 Regular 1: 185070200111002 Aditya Paksi Tohara 195070200111001 Ajeng Citra Emilia 195070200111005 Meylida Richa Zevriana 195070200111007 Kesya Laura Nanlohy 195070200111009 Adinda Regina Pramesti 195070200111011 Fajar Tri Utami 195070200111015 Fatika Fairuz Burhani 195070200111017 Victoria Maya Kurniawati
11. AGING11.1. Aging is characterized by gradual loss and change in function in several organ systems. The rate of these changes varies among people and can be accelerated by individual lifestyles, risk factors and diseases, and the environment, culminating in considerable heterogeneity of the older population. As these changes accumulate, and an individual’s physiological capacity to withstand stressors and maintain homeostasis diminishes, a state referred to as «homeostosis.» As a result, older individuals become more susceptible to disease as well as the side effects of therapeutic drugs and invasive procedures.
Images of the cardiovascular system
Smooth muscle is known as muscle that works under nerve awareness, contracting slowly and automatically over a long period of time due to the large area of actin and myosin filaments attached to each other. Smooth muscle tissue in vertebrate animals and humans is composed of a collection of smooth muscle cells whose mechanism of action is involved in muscle contraction in internal organs, such as the uterus, digestive system organs, reproductive system organs, and is also found in the cardiovascular system including arterial and venous channels.
Smooth muscle generally has a spindle-like shape with a pointed shape at both ends and each cell contains a nucleus located in the center. In cross sections, it will appear that the size of the midline varies and only the larger sized lines have nuclei. The nucleus will fold and the cell boundaries appear wavy when the smooth muscle contracts.»
Smooth muscle in each organ has differences in terms of function, physical dimensions, response to stimulus, and innervation characteristics. Smooth muscle does not have cross lines as in striated muscle which comes from highly organized sarcomeres in the cell. A common feature that distinguishes smooth muscle cells from other cells is that most of the cytoplasm in smooth muscle is occupied by actin and myosin which are specialized to perform contraction functions. Dimensionally, the center of the cell is between 2 to 10 μm (micrometers) in diameter and the length of the cell is between 100-200 μm, with the longest size reaching 600 μm.